lipprose Werner Nolte über mittelalterliche Architektur und Geschichte
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Old Cloisters

Next to monastic churches, cloisters are the second-most interesting and important structures of medieval convents. Via arcades, the walkways, which are sometimes two stories high, grant access to a usually square courtyard. These functioned as places of regeneration, communication, and reading. Wells and fountain houses allowed for washing.
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  Collegiate Church  San Pedro de Teverga, Asturias (E)
During the early Middle Ages - verifiable at least from the eighth century on - these facilities were modest and, when a convent was newly founded, often made of wood. An example from Asturia, though from early modern times, may serve to illustrate this.
Early cloisters are rare. The oldest fragment in Germany, dating from around 1000 and consisting of six arches, is found in the Church of St. Pantaleon in Cologne.
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St. Pantaleon, Cologne
Prior to the cubic capital, its rare mushroom capitals were already used in Ottonian architecture.
Translation Erik Eising (MA)

The Sold King

Who would buy a king?
And how much would he cost?
In 1193, Duke Leopold V of Austria handed Emperor Henry VI valuable booty: Richard Lionheart, King of England.
The price was 50,000 silver marks, worth over 1 billion Euro's today, a proper consolation for his excommunication. The city of Wiener Neustadt owes his existence to the thief.
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 Trifels Castle
Richard, returning from the third crusade, had to avoid the lands of his numerous enemies, among whom the French king and the Emperor. His attempt to return home via Austria was unwise. During one of his tantrums at Acre, he had thrown Duke Leopold's banner into the mud.


The Emperor seized the prisoner at Trifels Castle and demanded from England 100,000 silvers marks. The country - with its population of 2.2 million - bled out financially. Even precious liturgical objects were melted down.


After the payment of the "purchase price", the Emperor possessed sufficient silver to conquer the Norman Kingdom of Sicily, which' crown he received in 1194. Since then, he reigned from the North Sea to the Mediterranean.


Translation: Erik Eising (MA)


Bricks against cannons

The introduction of cannons on the battlefields of the late Middle Ages changed much, particularly regarding techniques of fortification.
The rather weak walls and city gates, normally sufficient to defend against infantry, did not last against cannon balls made of stone and iron.
This is also what the defenders of Constantinople experienced. In 1453, a hail of cannon balls weighing over one hundred kilograms breached the city's famous double wall ring, in order for the Janissaries of Sultan Mehmet II to enter. Constantinople fell to the Ottoman Empire.
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Inner ramparts 
In Europe, attempts were made to protect castles and fortifications with semi-circular artillery towers. In the medieval city fortification of Neubrandenburg (Mecklenburg-Vorpommern), which has almost completely been preserved, the Friedländer Double Gate is guarded by a rampart with thick walls and cannons.
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A further development consisted of shorter round towers with fighting platforms. The cannons erected there were able to fire in all directions, as opposed to those of the ramparts proper.
However, even these could not stop the effectiveness of heavy firearms, although the modern star-shaped bastions with earth walls - the remnants of which can still be found in various cities - would constitute a definite improvement.
Translation: Erik Eising (MA)

Let There Be Light

How were the dark naves and high vaults of medieval churches lit after dusk?
Wax candles were used to fight the darkness. Although expensive, and the potential cause of fires, they were indispensable. The faithful made donations to the churches in the form of such candles so that their houses of worship would be lit.
The most impressive method of creating light in the dark was through wheel chandeliers. These symbolized the walls of Heavenly Jerusalem, and were filled with donated candles.
Four medieval chandeliers are preserved in Germany, three of them dating from the twelfth century:
The Barbarossa-chandelier in Aachen Cathedral, recently restored and over 4 meter in diameter. It holds up to 48 candles.
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Barbarossa chandelier
The Hartwig-chandelier in Comburg Abbey, over 5 meter in diameter. It holds up to 48 candles as well.
The Hezilo-chandelier in Hildesheim Cathedral, with a diameter of 6 meter the largest wheel chandelier. It holds up to 72 candles. What a sight it must be when the light of its burning candles reflects upon the walls and towers of the symbolic city.
The Azelin-chandelier (or Thietmar-chandelier) in Hildesheim Cathedral should be regarded as a smaller "sibling" of the Hezilo-chandelier.
For the sake of  completeness: the beautiful wheel chandelier in the Basilica of St. Godehard, also in Hildesheim, dates from the nineteenth century.
Translation: Erik Eising (MA)


When I heard this word for the first time, I let it roll from my tongue. Just beautiful.
But who or what is it - Covadonga?
It is not shameful not to know, unless you are a Spanish schoolchild.
The answer is important for the history of the country. Near the cave of Covadonga in the mountains of Asturias, a Christian force attacked the Arab invaders around 720, about ten years after the devastating defeat of the Visigoths' army. The commander, Pelagius / Pelayo, member of the ancient Visigothic nobility, became king of Asturias, the first Christian empire after the Moorish invasion, and a Spanish national hero.
Historians struggle with the exaggerated descriptions from both Muslim and Christian perspectives. It was probably  a fight, not a battle. The facts nevertheless are that it took place, near Covadonga, and that the occupiers were defeated.
The event had a high symbolic significance, even beyond all its military and political consequences. It marked the beginning of the Reconquista, the expulsion of the Muslims from the Iberian Peninsula. Whether Pelagius himself had thought this far into the future? It took almost 800 years, until 1492, before Boabdil, the last Sultan of Granada, handed over the city and state to the Spanish kings, without a fight.
Translation: Erik Eising (MA)

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