lipprose Werner Nolte über mittelalterliche Architektur und Geschichte
  • Aktuelle Seite:  
  • Home
  • Blog

Werner's blog

Raise the door

As the entrance to a church, the door was considered of great importance during the Middle Ages. It functioned as a means of protection and separation, marked the transition from the exterior to the interior, noise to silence, the profane to the sacred. In contrast to interior doors, they were decorated with magnificent sculptures and embedded in richly sculpted portals. In addition to rare and valuable bronze doors, which had a greater chance of surviving up to today, wood was the material of choice. From the Middle Ages, only a few have been preserved.
Pentecost (right wing, below)
Decades ago I marveled at the earliest of these impressive works - from the eleventh century in the Church of St. Mary's in the Capitol in Cologne. At the time they were guarding the entrance at the northern side. Today, the 2.3 m high doors can be found in the southern nave - behind bars. Oak planks carry 22 carved panels of walnut depicting scenes from the life of Christ. Remains of original polychromy have been preserved.
Pentecost02Left wing below: Baptism of Christ
Above right: Massacre of the Innocents
Significantly older are the wooden doors in the late-antique Basilica of Santa Sabina on the Aventine Hill in Rome. For these, the fifth-century artists used cedar wood. From the originally 28 panels 18 have been preserved.
Pentecost03 Israelites with Pillar of  Fire, Egyptians drowning in the Red Sea,
Aaron with Snakes
Only two doors of so many!
How many disappeared forever?
Translation: Erik Eising (MA)

Gothic in Paradise

It is time to talk about the beginnings of an architectural style in Germany, which 800 years ago arrived from France.
Who else than the Cistercians could have accomplished this, during the early thirteenth century? The Order was well organised and their builders and artisans consisted of capable craftsmen.
In their Abbey of Maulbrunn, today a World Heritage Site, a Burgundian master initiated around 1210/1220 the construction of the highly renowned Gate of Paradise - the entrance of the church. Scholars also attribute to him a section of the cloister.
südl.Kreuzgg. mbn 1.18.jmodAP.size2.hell
MAULBR Paradies.1.07.resol2.licht.jommla.2
The name of the master builder has not been preserved. Therefore, experts have given him a name of convenience. As the "Master of Paradise", he has been eternalised in the history of art.
It cannot be ruled out that, from ca. 1230 on, he worked on the choir of the Gothic Cathedral of Magdeburg.
Translation Erik Eising (MA)

Man and Architecture

Over the course of the past twenty years, I have travelled extensively throughout Europe, in the footsteps of medieval architecture.
I have taken thousands of photographs. The representation of buildings was important to me, people were more of a disruption.
Today, somewhat more mature, I start to see this somewhat differently.
Here, two examples that have made me think:
S. Quirico.Orcia1 043Tos1modAP. resol.jsize.kleiner
The Collegiate Church of San Quirico d'Orcia
A medieval scene in sunny Southern Tuscany, in front of the western portal of a Romanesque church constructed during the twelfth century. A person resting on the steps in front of a façade built with natural stone.
The façade is filled with symbolism: knotted columns are intended to repell evil, and the columns on the backs of the large, guarding lions symbolically support the Church. The reliefs decorating the console consist of various fantastic creatures.
Whether the 21st-century person in the picture had any interest in and sense of this architectural work, built 800 years ago?
In rather cloudy Vorpommern, a great contrast: an imposing brick portal from the fourteenth century. A "small" person strolls past, without granting the Gothic architecture one look. There are no steps to offer a chance to rest.
Greifswald 0540. blog.klein
The Western Portal of the Collegiate Church (Dom) of. St. Nicholas, Greifswald
Unlike in Tuscany, the tenfold stepped portal of brick and masonry was constructed with artificial stone. The builders joined thousands of clay-mottled and glazed blocks, produced through pre-industrial means, into an impressive portal. The modern era was just around the corner.
What connects both scenes, despite all these opposites? I believe: the small human in front of these great works of medieval architecture. A bit of humility would be appropriate.
Translation: Erik Eising (MA)

Logistics at the construction site

Logistics at the construction site Standing in front of medieval buildings, we often ask ourselves: How did builders move heavy blocks, mortars, beams, and lead plates all those hundreds of years ago? How did they get the material to such great heights?
Primitive devices for single persons, such as containers, existed, with which construction workers transported mortar. Heavier materials were carried by two men using two parallel spars with cross boards.
The wheel was of course well-known. Wheelbarrows were used from the twelfth century on. Two- or four-wheeled carts, usually pulled by mules or oxen, were also used. These were commemorated in the towers of Laon Cathedral.
Wismar 4550 modAP Replica of a pedal wheel - in front of the Church of St. Mary, Wismar
For the goods lift, a fixed role and different cranes, for example gallows cranes, were used. The loads were lifted by means of rope and reel, either by reels or tricycles in which people or animals ran. All of these devices were made of wood.
The stone tong was made of iron, a useful device for lifting cuboids. Two S-shaped arms closed as soon as the rope was tightened, clamping the stone. Even today in the walls of medieval buildings we can occasionally see the small holes in the middle of the blocks in which the tips of the pliers arms were placed.
Despite all these means of transport - human workers bore the brunt, both on the ground and on the rickety scaffolding. Construction work was tough, then as it is now.
Translation: Erik Eising (MA)

Handles and Grommets

Those with an interest in the quirky aspects of medieval art are constantly able to find new details of which the meaning cannot be explained today, or details that indeed may be meaningless.
On the exterior and in the interior of the Church of Neuwerk in Goslaer - the construction of which began in the twelfth century - enthusiasts can get their money's worth. Here, only one interesting element in the basilica's central nave can be mentioned.
 Gslr Neuwerkk 8515 modAPres
Some of the half-columns that help carry the vault abandon the wall - and therewith their original task - to protrude the interior space, only to return to the wall again further upward.
Yet, this is not all. These "handle"-like elements are hung with rings, or they feature a sculpted mask.
The "grommets" have been interpreted as variations on the "Ouroboros", the antique symbol of the serpent biting into its own tail.
So-called "little green men" or leaf-masks can be found among the church's ornaments as well.
Translation: Erik Eising (MA)

Cookies erleichtern die Bereitstellung unserer Dienste. Mit der Nutzung unserer Dienste erklären Sie sich damit einverstanden, dass wir Cookies verwenden.